top of page

Digital Signatures Demystified: How They Work and Their Legal Standing in the Credit Approval Process

Bhupendra Washishtha

4 min read

Jul 9




In the age of digital transformation, credit managers are constantly seeking ways to streamline processes and enhance efficiency. Digital signatures have emerged as a powerful tool in this quest, revolutionizing the way credit approvals are handled. But how do digital signatures work, and can they hold up in court? Let's demystify digital signatures and explore their legal standing in the USA and Canada.

What Are Digital Signatures?

A digital signature is a type of electronic signature that uses cryptographic techniques to provide authenticity, integrity, and non-repudiation to digital documents. Unlike simple electronic signatures, which might be a scanned image of a handwritten signature or a typed name, digital signatures are more secure and can be verified.

How Digital Signatures Work
  1. Creating the Signature: - When a signer signs a document digitally, a unique digital fingerprint (hash) of the document is created using a cryptographic algorithm.     - This hash is then encrypted with the signer's private key, creating the digital signature. The private key is securely held by the signer and is not shared.

  2. Attaching the Signature: - The digital signature, along with the signer's public key and a timestamp, is attached to the document.    - The public key is part of a digital certificate issued by a trusted Certificate Authority (CA), which verifies the signer's identity.

  3. Verifying the Signature: - When the document is received, the recipient uses the signer's public key to decrypt the digital signature. - The decrypted hash is compared to a newly generated hash of the document. If they match, the signature is verified, confirming that the document has not been altered and the signer's identity is authenticated.

Legal Standing in the USA and Canada United States:

In the USA, digital signatures are legally recognized under two primary laws:

  1. Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (ESIGN Act):  - Enacted in 2000, the ESIGN Act grants legal validity to electronic signatures and records, provided all parties involved agree to their use. - It ensures that contracts and documents cannot be denied legal effect simply because they are in electronic form.

  2. Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (UETA): - Adopted by 47 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, UETA provides a legal framework for the use of electronic records and signatures in transactions.    - It establishes that electronic signatures have the same legal standing as handwritten signatures.


In Canada, digital signatures are governed by both federal and provincial laws:

  1. Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA): - At the federal level, PIPEDA recognizes electronic signatures and sets out standards for their use in commercial activities.     - It mandates that electronic signatures must be reliable and meet specific security requirements to be legally binding.

  2. Provincial Laws: - Various provinces have enacted their own electronic commerce laws that align with federal standards. For example, Ontario's Electronic Commerce Act and British Columbia's Electronic Transactions Act recognize the legal validity of electronic signatures.     - These laws ensure that electronic signatures are treated equally to traditional handwritten signatures, provided they meet reliability and security criteria.

How Digital Signatures Hold Up in Court

For digital signatures to be legally enforceable in court, they must meet certain criteria:

  1. Intent to Sign:     - It must be clear that the signer intended to sign the document. This is often demonstrated through explicit consent and clear indications of the signing process.

  2. Consent to Do Business Electronically: - All parties must agree to conduct transactions electronically. This consent can be part of the initial agreement or provided during the signing process.

  3. Association of Signature with the Record: - The digital signature must be logically associated with the signed document. This means the signature should be linked to the document in such a way that any changes to the document would invalidate the signature.

  4. Record Retention:  - The electronic document and signature must be retained in a form that is accessible and can be accurately reproduced for later reference. This ensures that the document can be presented in court if necessary.

  5. Security and Authentication: - Using cryptographic techniques and digital certificates from trusted Certificate Authorities (CAs) enhances the security and authenticity of digital signatures. This helps establish the signer's identity and the document's integrity.

Best Practices for Credit Managers
  1. Choose the Right Digital Signature Solution: - Select a digital signature provider that complies with ESIGN, UETA, and PIPEDA standards. Ensure the provider offers robust authentication methods and secure encryption.

  2. Implement Strong Authentication Measures: - Use multi-factor authentication (MFA) to verify the signer's identity. This can include something the signer knows (password), something they have (security token), and something they are (biometric verification).

  3. Maintain Comprehensive Records:  - Keep detailed records of the digital signature process, including timestamps, consent forms, and audit trails. This documentation can be invaluable if the validity of the signature is ever challenged in court.

  4. Educate Your Team and Clients:   - Ensure that your team and clients understand the digital signature process and its legal implications. Provide clear instructions and support to facilitate a smooth transition to digital signatures.


Digital signatures are a game-changer in the credit approval process, offering enhanced security, efficiency, and legal validity. By understanding how they work and ensuring compliance with legal standards in the USA and Canada, credit managers can confidently leverage digital signatures to streamline their operations.

Embrace the future of credit management with digital signatures, and enjoy the benefits of faster approvals, reduced costs, and improved customer experience. Stay informed, stay compliant, and navigate the digital landscape with confidence. Ready to see how NetNow uses digital signatures in credit approval process? Call us 1-833-663-8669 or Book a Demo here!

Bhupendra Washishtha

4 min read

Jul 9





Commenting has been turned off.
bottom of page